• History of Hackettstown
    The area of Northwest New Jersey that is now known as Hackettstown was at the crossroads of two very important highways. The road in front of us, now know as Main Street was called "the Great Road". One highway extended from Sussex Court House (currently Newton, NJ) south to Trenton, while the other extended from the coast west to Easton, Pa.[1] The first settlers arrived in 1754 and began farming in the abundant fields. In the earliest days, there is evidence that the area went by the name of Crow Valley (unconfirmed), Musconetcong and Helm's Mill.[2]
    The name Musconetcong relates to the area's location in the Musconetcong Valley where the southeastern border of town is the Musconetcong River. This river would have served as an excellent source of water-power which undoubtedly became a determining factor for the location chosen for the two earliest mills. The first was established in 1763 and owned and operated by a businessman by the name of Mark Thompson. This grist and sawmill was located on what is currently Mill Road (where route 46 crosses over the Musconetcong River).[3]
    The second mill was owned and operated by Thomas Helm in 1764. Helm's mill was primarily a gristmill but records indicate that it also functioned as a sawmill. Helm's mill was located on what is now Willow Grove Street, just one block north of Main Street.[4] These mills were kept busy due to the fact that the principle source of income at the time was farming.
    There are many long time Hackettstonians whose eyes light up as they tell the story that takes place in the late 1760s. It was at this time that the area known by many as Helm's Mill had reached enough settlers that a judge by the name of Samuel Hackett called a meeting at a local tavern. A barrel of fine spirits was shared and as the barrel became lighter and lighter, the judge suggested that a better name for the town might be Hackett's town. Those in attendance, with full mugs raised in the air, agree and the name of Helm's Mill was forever changed. While this makes for a great story, there are many inaccuracies.
    According to historian George Wyckoff Cummins, Samuel Hackett was the earliest and largest landowner in the area. Cummins also shares the story of how the town received the name Hackettstown and includes Samuel as the Hackett who suggested this. Records show that in 1767 Samuel Hackett was a ten-year-old boy. Sadly, this alone discredits the aforementioned tale.[5]
    The earliest evidence shows that Samuel's father, John Hackett, frequented the area while employed as an agent to William Allen and Joseph Turner of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. During this time, Hackett purchased large tracks of land for Allen and Turner and also for himself. Some of the land was purchased in the village known as Musconetcong. John Hackett became operator of Union Iron Works owned by Allen and Turner (located at present day High Bridge, NJ, under Spruce Run Reservoir) from 1749-1760. In 1755 he married Elizabeth Reading, the daughter of John Reading Jr. Interestingly enough, John Reading Jr. and his father were sent to survey the area in 1715. There is little doubt that Hackett was influenced by Reading to settle in this area. Hackett's status greatly improved through this marriage due to the fact that Reading was a very wealthy man. Reading was the surveyor of Penn's lands near the Pequest River and also served twice as the acting governor of New Jersey (1747 and 1757-1758). He was also the first trustee of what would become Princeton University. The Olde Burial Ground serves as John Reading's grandson, Montgomery Reading's final resting place.[6]
    John Hackett became manager of Andover Furnace in 1760. It was at this time that he also served as Justice of the Peace for Hunterdon County and Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Sussex County. After his death on September 20, 1766, much of his land was sold at sheriff's sale. It is on these deeds dated 1767 that the location of the land is referred to as "Hackettstown".[7]
    Evidence can be found on a map drawn in 1769 by Faden and printed in London, England. The area is marked as "Halkettstown." Historians agree that this was either a misspelling or the font used by the printer. A second map prepared by Robert Erskine in 1777 shows "Hackettstown" as the name for the area. Both the Continental and British troops would use Erskine's map during the American Revolution.[8]
    The earliest known records tell that in 1754 Obadiah Ayers (grandson of John who immigrated from Scotland in 1635) and his second wife Dorothy Langdon Ayers came to the area from Basking Ridge, New Jersey (to the southeast of Hackettstown). Ayers purchased 1200 acres from the heirs of Thomas Lambert on the west bank of the Musconetcong River. While it is a proven fact that many of the eighteenth century settlers were drawn to New Jersey's religious tolerance, economic freedom and ample land, it is believed that Ayers arrived for a different reason. The New York Gazette of 1750 tells of a murder of Ayer's wife by their black servant. Historian Raymond Lemasters believes that Ayers was starting a new life in a new place.[9]
    As time passed, Ayers sold tracts of land to his stepson Daniel Landon, and other hopeful settlers like Edward Dunlap. As more and more settlers arrived, a village formed. Pre-revolution Musconetcong was a very busy center of trade. Mark Thompson's grist mill and saw mill in 1763 along the Musconetcong River would see more and more customers that processed the farmer's grain and supplied lumber for the homes being built. Thomas Helm opened up his mill in 1764 and his son William ran what is said to have been the first and only store for some time across from the mill. A blacksmith by the name of Jerry Castner made nails in a shop located on the property of Helm's Mill. The crops processed in the local fields were being sold in the shop along with a variety of dry goods that could not be made at home.[10] Another key feature to this area was John Crooks fulling mill. While much of the cloth was woven at home, the cloth was not suitable to be worn. It needed to be processed further and this process was known as "fulling". Paddles were used to beat the cloth and compress the cloth in water. This process caused the fabric to shrink. The fibers would become smoother, thicker and firmer. The end product was a longer lasting fabric.[11]
    Most of these hardy settlers were from Scotch or Scotch-Irish descent of the Presbyterian faith. It was on March 3, 1763 that a piece of land was purchased by the members of "the Presbyterian Congregation of Musconetcong near Thomas Helm's Mill" for five shillings from Obadiah Ayers.[12] Shortly thereafter the construction of a small frame meetinghouse began.
    "Beginning at a post near the great road (currently Main Street), north 55 degrees east 6 chains and 60 links to a blackoak corner; thence south 35 degrees east one chain and fifty three links; thence south 53 degrees west 5 chains and 60 links; thence north 35 degrees west one chain and 93 links to a post, the place of the beginning."[13]
    Tragedy struck during construction. Nathaniel Foster fell from the framework of the building and was killed. Foster is said to have been the first burial to take place in the church grounds. His headstone will not be found here. His remains were later relocated just down the road to Union Cemetery located on Mountain Avenue. On a deed recorded on August 8, 1786, Obadiah Ayers sold an extra half-acre to the Presbyterian Congregation to be used as a cemetery.[14]
    As the years passed and the number of settlers increased, so too did the number of headstones in the Presbyterian cemetery. The grounds were declared full in 1861. The exact number of interments is not known at this point. Any records of the interred have been untraceable and many believe have been lost over time. Newspaper articles and early research declare that there are 165 graves here. One must understand that a coffin at this time period was basically a pine box. It is very unlikely that there would be bricks placed around the coffin or slate surrounding the coffins. The exposed wood over time would decay and the surrounding soil would cave into the coffin.[15] Cemetery historians have also found that the headstones have sunk into the ground due to the shifting of soil. With the efforts of local historian, Charles Prestopine, the Olde Burial Grounds Committee recently completed a "radar deep search" that aided in locating many unmarked graves. This search continues still today.
    While the restoration effort draws many volunteers into the burial ground there is another unique characteristic of four of the headstones that draws visitors from both near and far. They are made from brownstone and have the carving of a cherub (winged object with a child's face in the middle) at the top of the stone. It is believed that these cherubs are the design of the stonecutter from Newark, New Jersey named Uzal Ward.
    Records indicate that at one time there were twenty-nine Revolutionary War veterans buried here. If you refer to the Walking Tour Map, you will notice that there are twenty-two American Revolution veterans that have confirmed locations. There are two veterans that are believed to have been interred in the areas marked. The first is stop eighteen (18) on the map- Col. James Cook is believed to be interred next to his daughter and the second is stop twenty-three (23) Obadiah Ayers- is believed to be buried in the area marked near the other Ayers family members. The remaining five veterans have not been located. The reasons for this vary. It is a fact that there are no headstones to mark their graves. Some may not have been able to afford a stone. Another probable occurrence is when the grounds were declared full in 1861, some families decided to purchase family plots in Union Cemetery (located further down route 46 across from the Dunkin Doughnuts) in order to keep the deceased family members together. It is known that a William Wire is buried at Union Cemetery in the Wire family plot.
    Today, the Ground has an open, clean and refreshed look to it. This is due to the countless hours the many volunteers have spent over the last nine years constantly making improvements.
    Prior to this effort, the grounds had been neglected. The stonewalls were falling apart. Overgrown weeds, small trees, tall grass and even graffiti masked this sacred ground. Headstones were leaning with some smashed due to vandals. Broken and empty glass bottles, and beer cans were scattered throughout the yard. Old bed mattresses, car axles, tires and other debris could be seen peeking out of the undergrowth. It is sad to say but many of the town residents have admitted that they were unaware that this historical treasure even existed.
    This would change beginning in 1999. A group formed that realized the historical importance that the yard offered to the town, county, state and country. Word had reached other townspeople and teachers of the local schools. The call for volunteers was answered and little by little the group continued to grow.
    Many Saturday mornings the yard was full of over one hundred volunteers (with many being students of Great Meadows Middle School). As each workday passed, new discoveries were made. Hidden headstones were uncovered, along with artifacts such as dishware, horseshoes and antique bottles. Weeds were pulled, the grass was cut and shrubs trimmed. What had once been the eyesore of Hackettstown had become the topic of conversation. People were taking notice.
    The greatest attention was brought to the yard as the reconstruction of the dilapidated south wall. The wall was originally constructed in 1812. Years of neglect made this an unsafe eyesore. Volunteers took the wall apart stone by stone, chipping off the old mortar, brushing them clean and handing them to the volunteer masons that fitted them back into place. Newspapers and townspeople watched as the volunteer assembly-line rebuilt the wall.
    Clean-up days consisted of raking and weeding the yard. An area towards the northeast corner of the yard was overgrown with trees up to eight inches thick. Skilled experts used hatchets and chainsaws, while the students and teachers lugged out the logs. The father of a Great Meadows Middle School student carefully removed the stumps with his backhoe. Grass seed was planted and by spring the area was lush and green.
    The veteran plots were marked with American Revolution medallions and flag holders courtesy of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Replacement markers were obtained through the United States Government Department of Veterans Affairs and set into place. Cemetery historian and friend of the Olde Burial Ground, John O'Brian helped straightened the stones that were tilted. Many of the stones that were smashed were pieced together. Shrubs with mulch have been planted against the northeast section of the yard to continue the clean, natural look.
    The future restoration of the yard will consist of:
      • The rebuilding of the north wall in much the same fashion as the south wall.
      • Replacement markers will be placed on the plots where the stone is either illegible or missing.
      • Another radar deep-search scan will be conducted in the hopes of identifying those plots that are unmarked. These areas will be marked and further research will be conducted to identify those interred.

    The Hackettstown High School art students will create an eighteenth century agricultural mural to be painted on the side of the building neighboring the north wall. The Olde Presbyterian Burial ground has been a labor of love for many of the volunteers that have helped uncover this historical treasure. The people of Hackettstown now take pride in the history those interred made possible. Thanks to the efforts of the Burial Grounds Committee, history has come alive and will continue to live on.

    Many of the veterans buried in the grounds are believed to have been a part of what became known as citizen soldiers or militiamen. Today, New Jersey is known as the crossroads of the American Revolution. During the war, there was constant activity moving in and out. It seems as if the Provincial Congress of New Jersey understood the strategic importance of their colony and on June 3rd, 1775 passed a law requiring all able-bodied males 16 years to 50 years to enlist as militiamen or minutemen in companies and regiments organized to drill and march in The defense of this or any neighboring colony, each company to consist of one Captain, two Lieutenants and one Ensign.[16]
    The militia units served as key components in keeping British activity in check. Examples of this begin as early as 1776 with the British capturing nearby Staten Island, Manhattan Island and Long Island. Targeted for its abundance of food and resources, New Jersey was often threatened with British raids on these supplies. It was the responsibility of the militia to defend the counties in danger of enemy movements. The many roads of New Jersey were used to move both the Continentals and British forces from one area to the next. It was the militia's responsibilities to either keep these roads safe and clear or to hinder the efforts of the British that attempted to travel upon them. The militia units held key responsibilities in guarding prisoners, and keeping the loyalist population in check.
    "The American militiaman symbolized the 'natural' way to fight by responding to a challenge instead of honor or reward."[17] The militia units often found their family, their homes and their way of life in danger. When danger appeared on or near their doorstep, they reacted. Perhaps the best description of the citizen soldier is from the military theorist, Comte de Guibert written in 1771...
    "...terrible when angered, he will carry flame and fire to the enemy. He will terrify, with his vengeance, any people who may be tempted to trouble his repose... He arises, leaves his fireside, he will perish, in the end if necessary; but he will obtain satisfaction, he will avenge himself, he will assure himself, by the magnificence of this vengeance, of his future tranquility."[18]

    February 13, 1776 found two complete artillery companies raised by the Provincial Congress of New Jersey with twelve field pieces. One company would be responsible for the eastern part of the colony while the second would be responsible for the western portion.[19]
    It is important to understand what these units were and the advantage they added to the cause. Artillery was much needed long-range firepower as compared to the musket that was accurate (in the hands of a skilled marksman) of up to about one hundred yards. The damage inflicted by artillery pieces was also much more devastating than that of a musketball.
    There are many different sizes when considering artillery pieces, but the most commonly used in the American Revolution were the three-pounder or the six-pounder. This simply means that these shot cannon balls weighing three or six pounds.
    Lawrence would have been considered as part of an elite group of men. The ability to have a cannonball hit the desired target was not luck. These men had to be skilled in mathematical calculations as well as using complicated instruments to achieve success.

    Those who were taken prisoner during the American Revolution would hope to be used in the quick exchange of personnel from one army back into the other. It is believed that this was the fate of William Stewart. Unfortunately for others, this was not the case.
    New York harbor was the location of the greatest deaths in the American Revolution. More men died in the prison ships anchored here than in all of the battles. There are records of sixteen prison ships that were anchored on the East River.
    Just after the Battle of Long Island in August of 1776, and the British occupation of New York shortly thereafter, the amount of Continental soldiers taken prisoner became so numerous that they began bringing in the older vessels and transferring them into floating prisons. The ship named The Jersey became the most well known of these floating death camps.[20]
    The amount of disease and filth witnessed by the prisoners is truly appalling. The Department of Defense has 4,435 battle deaths listed for the American Revolution. It is estimated by historians that there were between 7,000-8,000 deaths aboard these prison ships, while some say the figure is nearly double that.[21]

    Hopefully you noticed that Morgan was a member of HELM'S Company. This is the same Helm's that owned the mill and store in town and the reason why the town was often referred to as Helm's Mill. Helm's was a firm patriot and at the outbreak of war he enlisted in the army. He was promoted to Major and became commanding officer of the militia.
    The 2nd NJ Battalion was authorized in October 1775 making them a part of the war from the very beginning. Local Historians agree that it is most likely that Morgan would have taken part in what is known as "The Sullivan Campaign of 1779." This campaign is often referred to as the best planned and best executed operation of the American Revolution.[22] General Washington sent an expedition under the command of John Sullivan into the British supporting Iroquois territory of western New York to conduct a "scorched-earth" campaign.[23] The Iroquois were ill equipped when compared to the more modern, heavy equipped army of the Americans. Three brigades of regulars began carving a road northward from Easton, Pa to the Wyoming Valley then onward to Athens, Pa. The objective was to destroy the homes and food supplies of the Iroquois. The officers ordered the men, "to leave nothing edible."[24]
    Light infantry and riflemen accompanied Sullivan and were sent ahead and to the sides of the columns for added security against the Iroquois. Sullivan had a force of nearly 4,500 men while the Iroquois and Tories had roughly 700 men. Greatly outnumbered, an ambush seemed the only sensible strategy for the Iroquois. The American rifle corps identified the ambush, which led to the only true skirmish of the campaign on August 30. In the end, a handful lay dead.
    Sullivan's troops then led a devastating march destroying the fruitful lands of the Seneca, Cayuga, and the Onondaga tribes.[25] Using swords and sabers, the soldiers engaged in what historian Barbara Graymont calls "a warfare against vegetables."[26] Forty villages were destroyed along with orchards, planting fields full of ripe beans, peas, squash, potatoes, onions, turnips, cabbage, cucumbers, watermelons, carrots, and corn. It was recorded that 160,000 bushels of corn were destroyed.[27] Sullivan's troops left nothing edible.
    The timing of this strategy could not have been more perfect. The months of August and September find the crops ripe and ready for picking with no time remaining to plant new crops before the cold northeastern winter arrives. If the objective was to make the tribes suffer, the plan was a success. If the objective was to subdue the Iroquois tribes and secure the frontier, the plan was a failure. The destruction of native villages, fields and food supplies only made the Iroquois dependants of the British. The Iroquois nation were no longer fighting soley for the crown, as they had been before Sullivan's Campaign, they were now fighting against the Americans for revenge.[28]

    Current research has uncovered information that found the Isaac Smith that was Justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey to be buried in the First Presbyterian Burial ground in Trenton, New Jersey.[29] Research is still being conducted to confirm the validity of the aforementioned finding.

    The importance of a Wagoner to any military organization of the eighteenth century is immeasurable, but even more so for the ill-equipped Continental Army. One can only imagine the welcoming sight of a supply wagon full of goods rolling into camp. The arrival of wagons not only replenished supplies but also the hope that the army will live another day.
    As a Wagoner for the Continental Army, Jeremiah Pool would have known the vast terrain, roadways and alternate roadways of each mission. There was also an insurmountable amount of possible danger lurking around each bend. If the British were able to seize these wagons, they would have cut the lifeline of the Continental troops.
    It is believed that Pool was involved in the supplying of General Washington's troops at Valley Forge located in nearby Morristown, New Jersey. It was here that Washington and his troops were encamped for the hard winter of 1779-80. Morristown served as an excellent vantage point for General Washington- a two-day march from the British in New York City, with natural defensive boundaries found in the Watchung Mountains and the Great Swamp not only prevented any threat of a surprise attack, but added safety to the many roadways that were used as military supply lines. These roads also aided in the maneuvering of the army. Morristown seemed to be the ideal location for the army to have access to clothing, food and timber.[30]
    The site chosen by General Washington was a 1,400 acre farmstead owned by the Wick family. The open fields were soon filled with 13,000 soldiers. The land also offered the Continental troops an abundance of timber for which to use as fuel and for the construction of huts.[31]
    In accordance to orders given by General Washington, the construction of the enlisted men's huts (fourteen feet by sixteen feet) were to be first with the officer's huts built after. It is believed that the majority of enlisted men moved out of their ragged tents and into the huts by Christmas while the final officers were in by late January to mid February. Until these huts were constructed the men slept under the cover of their old, beat-up tents and experienced the wrath of winter.
    Journals tell us that the winter of 1779-80 was the worst in over a century with twenty-two massive storms that struck in or around the Morristown area. The frigid temperatures were constant enough to freeze over the New York Harbor.[32] The words of historian Robert Leckie sum up the Continentals stay that winter: "Nothing in the history of the trials of the Continental Army, not even the ordeal of Valley Forge, compares to the cold white crucible of the second winter at Morristown." [33]
    Wagoners such as Jeremiah Pool used oxen pulled sleds to make it over the several feet of snow covered Schooley's Mountain to deliver the much-needed supplies to Washington and his men. When speaking of Jeremiah Pool, local historian Charles Prestopine says that "This man is a bona-fide hero of the Revolution."[34]

    The body of James Cook is believed to be buried next to his daughter. There is no headstone for him but the radar search shows an occupied grave. While he has been recorded in the Hackettstown Historical Society Papers as "Colonel Cook," the DAR has only found records for James Cook as a Private in the NJ Militia. Further research is being conducted.

    The earliest known records tell that in 1754 Obadiah Ayers (grandson of John who immigrated from Scotland in 1635) and his second wife Dorothy Langdon Ayers came to the area from Basking Ridge, New Jersey (to the southeast of Hackettstown). Ayers purchased 1,200 acres from the heirs of Thomas Lambert on the west bank of the Musconetcong River. While it is a proven fact that many of the eighteenth century settlers were drawn to New Jersey's religious tolerance, economic freedom and ample land, it is believed that Ayers arrived for a different reason. The New York Gazette of 1750 tells of a murder of Ayer's wife by their black servant. Historian Raymond Lemasters believes that Ayers was starting a new life in a new place.[35]
    It was on March 3, 1763 that a piece of land was purchased by the members of "the Presbyterian Congregation of Musconetcong near Thomas Helm's Mill" for five shillings from Obadiah Ayers.[36]
    "Beginning at a post near the great road (currently Main Street), north 55 degrees east 6 chains and 60 links to a blackoak corner; thence south 35 degrees east one chain and fifty three links; thence south 53 degrees west 5 chains and 60 links; thence north 35 degrees west one chain and 93 links to a post, the place of the beginning."[37]

    Rev. Dr. Joseph Campbell while being a veteran of the American Revolution was also a respected minister for more than fifty-one years. He preached at the church here as well as in others in the area.[38]

    [1] Ernest Dalton,The History of Hackettstown,(Hackettstown Historical Society Collection) 59.

    [2] Raymond Lemasters, Hackettstown,N.J. Growing in America. (Washington,N.J.: Hicks Printing

    Company, 1976) 23.

    [3] Mildred Barker,The History of Hackettstown(Hackettstown Historical Society Papers) 1.

    [4] Lemasters,p. 24.

    [5] GeorgeWyckoff Cummins, History of Warren County, NJ. (Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1911)

    [6] Leonard Frankand Raymond Lemasters, Historic Main Street Hackettstown, N.J. (Easton, Pa.: Harmony Press, Inc., 2006) 1.

    [7] Frank andLemasters, p. 1.

    [8] Interviewwith Raymond Lemasters conducted October 29, 2008.

    [9] Interviewwith Raymond Lemasters.

    [10] Lemasters,pp. 2-3.

    [11] Barker, p.1.

    [12] Harold J. Nunn, The People of Hackettstown (Easton, Pa.: Correll Printing Company Inc., no

    date found) 19.

    [13] Deed of theFirst Presbyterian Church, Hackettstown Historical Society.

    [14] Frank andLemasters, p. 82.

    [15] Nunn, p. 19.

    [16] National Museum of the American Revolution.

    [17] Don Higginbotham, The War of AmericanIndependence: Military Attitudes, Policies and Practice 1763-1789. (New York.: Northeastern UniversityPress, 1983) 13.

    [18] Higginbotham, p. 13.

    [19] National Museum of the American Revolution.

    [20] Newsday Inc.

    [21] Newsday Inc.

    [22] Higginbotham, p. 328.

    [23] Higginbotham, p. 328.

    [24] Ray Raphael, A PeopleÕs History of the AmericanRevolution. (New York.: HarperCollinsPublishers Inc., 2002) 255.

    [25] Higginbotham, p. 328.

    [26] Raphael, p. 255.

    [27] Higginbotham, pp. 328-329.

    [28] Raphael, p. 255.

    [29] Hall, John, History of the Presbyterian Church inTrenton, N.J. from the First Settlement of the Town.

    [30] NPS, Morristown NHP,http://www.nps.gov/archive/morr/morr1.htm.

    [31] NPS, Morristown NHP, http://www.nps.gov/morr/faqs.htm.

    [32] Robert Leckie, George WashingtonÕs War: The Saga of theAmerican Revolution. (New York.: HarperCollins Publishers, 1992) 504.

    [33] Leckie, p. 504.

    [35] Interview with Raymond Lemasters.

    [36] Harold J. Nunn, The People ofHackettstown (Easton,Pa.: Correll Printing Company Inc., no

    date found) 19.

    [37] Deed of the First Presbyterian Church, HackettstownHistorical Society.

    [38] Hackettstown Historical Society Papers.


    Barker, Mildred. The History ofHackettstown. Hackettstown HistoricalSociety Papers

    Cummins, George Wyckoff.History of Warren County, NJ. LewisHistorical Publishing Company,1911.

    Dalton, Ernest. The History ofHackettstown, Hackettstown HistoricalSociety Collection.

    Deed of the First PresbyterianChurch, Hackettstown Historical Society.

    Frank, Leonard and Lemasters,Raymond. Historic Main Street Hackettstown, N.J. Easton, Pa.: Harmony Press,Inc., 2006.

    Glenna,Acord, Manager Chapter Services of the Daughters of the American Revolution email message, November 25,2008.

    HackettstownHistorical Society Papers, Olde Burial Ground Records, (accessed on November 18, 2008).

    Hall, John, Historyof the Presbyterian Church in Trenton, N.J. from the First Settlement of the Town, http://trentonhistory.org/Cem/FirstPresbyterian.htm, (accessed on December 11, 2008).

    Higginbotham, Don. The War ofAmerican Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies and Practice 1763- 1789.New York.: Northeastern University Press, 1983.

    Lechinski,Kevin. ÒCeremony Honors Revolutionary War Hero,Ó Warren Reporter 12 October 2007: D1- D2.

    Leckie,Robert. George WashingtonÕs War: The Saga of the American Revolution. New York.: Harper Collins Publishers,1992.

    Interview with Raymond Lemasters,Wednesday, October 29, 2008.

    Lemasters, Raymond. Hackettstown, N.J. Growing inAmerica. Washington, N.J.: Hicks PrintingCompany, 1976.

    Lemasters, Raymond, Interviewconducted Wednesday, October 29, 2008.

    Lemasters, Raymond. Hackettstown,N.J. Growing in America. Washington, N.J.:Hicks Printing Company, 1976.

    NationalMuseum of the American Revolution. ÒProvincial Legislatures Act: 1774-1775Ó http://www.nationalmuseumoftheamericanrevolution.org/museum/display.asp?id=79(accessed on November 29, 2008).

    Newsday Inc.ÒThe Wretched Prison Ships- Death, disease and injury were the fate of thousandsheld at sea by the British.Ó George DeWan. http://www.newsday.com/community/guide/lihistory/ny-history- hs425a,0,6698945.story (accessed November 29, 2008).

    Nunn, J. Harold. The People ofHackettstown, Easton, Pa.: CorrellPrinting Company Inc., (no date found).

    Raphael, Ray.A PeopleÕs History of the American Revolution. New York.: HarperCollins PublishersInc., 2002.